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Oracle常用命令

发布时间:2008-9-21 10:39:44   浏览次数:2575

第一章:日志管理
  1.forcing log switches   迫使开关日志
  sql> alter system switch logfile;
  2.forcing checkpoints    强迫检查
  sql> alter system checkpoint;
  3.adding online redo log groups    加入联机重做日志组
  sql> alter database add logfile [group 4]
  sql> ('/disk3/log4a.rdo','/disk4/log4b.rdo') size 1m;
  4.adding online redo log members    加入联机重做日志成员
  sql> alter database add logfile member
  sql> '/disk3/log1b.rdo' to group 1,
  sql> '/disk4/log2b.rdo' to group 2;
  5.changes the name of the online redo logfile     更改名称的联机重做日志
  sql> alter database rename file 'c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo01.log'
  sql> to 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';
  6.drop online redo log groups    落在线重做日志组
  sql> alter database drop logfile group 3;
  7.drop online redo log members       落在线重做日志成员
  sql> alter database drop logfile member 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';
  8.clearing online redo log files 结算在线重做日志文件
  sql> alter database clear [unarchived] logfile 'c:/oracle/log2a.rdo';
  9.using logminer analyzing redo logfiles  使用logminer分析重做日志
  a. in the init.ora specify utl_file_dir = ' '
  b. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_d.build('oradb.ora','c:\oracle\oradb\log');
  c. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo01.log',
  sql> dbms_logmnr.new);
  d. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo02.log',
  sql> dbms_logmnr.addfile);
  e. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>'c:\oracle\oradb\log\oradb.ora');
  f. sql> select * from v$logmnr_contents(v$logmnr_dictionary,v$logmnr_parameters
  sql> v$logmnr_logs);
g. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.end_logmnr;


第二章:表空间管理
  1.create tablespaces   创建表空间
  sql> create tablespace tablespace_name datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\file1.dbf' size 100m,
 sql> 'c:\oracle\oradata\file2.dbf' size 100m minimum extent 550k [logging/nologging]
  sql> default storage (initial 500k next 500k maxextents 500 pctinccease 0)
  sql> [online/offline] [permanent/temporary] [extent_management_clause]
  2.locally managed tablespace    本地管理表空间
  sql> create tablespace user_data datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\user_data01.dbf'
  sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m;
  3.temporary tablespace    临时表空间
  sql> create temporary tablespace temp tempfile 'c:\oracle\oradata\temp01.dbf'
  sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m;
  4.change the storage setting    改变存储设置
  sql> alter tablespace app_data minimum extent 2m;
  sql> alter tablespace app_data default storage(initial 2m next 2m maxextents 999);
  5.taking tablespace offline or online    同时表空间离线或在线
  sql> alter tablespace app_data offline;
  sql> alter tablespace app_data online;
  6.read_only tablespace    只读表空间
  sql> alter tablespace app_data read only|write;
  7.droping tablespace    删除表空间
  sql> drop tablespace app_data including contents;
  8.enableing automatic extension of data files   enableing自动延长数据档案
  sql> alter tablespace app_data add datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data01.dbf' size 200m
  sql> autoextend on next 10m maxsize 500m;
  9.change the size fo data files manually  尺寸变化的数据档案手动
  sql> alter database datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf' resize 200m;
  10.Moving data files: alter tablespace  移动数据档案:改变表空间
  sql> alter tablespace app_data rename datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf'
  sql> to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf';
  11.moving data files:alter database   移动数据档案:改变数据库
  sql> alter database rename file 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf'
sql> to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf';

 

第三章:表
  1.create a table   新建表
  sql> create table table_name (column datatype,column datatype]....)
  sql> tablespace tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [pctused integer]
  sql> [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]
  sql> storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50)
  sql> [logging|nologging] [cache|nocache]
  2.copy an existing table   复制一个现有的表
  sql> create table table_name [logging|nologging] as subquery
  3.create temporary table   创建临时表
  sql> create global temporary table xay_temp as select * from xay;
  on commit preserve rows/on commit delete rows
  4.pctfree = (average row size - initial row size) *100 /average row size
  pctused = 100-pctfree- (average row size*100/available data space)
  5.change storage and block utilization parameter  改变存储和利用块参数
  sql> alter table table_name pctfree=30 pctused=50 storage(next 500k
  sql> minextents 2 maxextents 100);
  6.manually allocating extents
  sql> alter table table_name allocate extent(size 500k datafile 'c:/oracle/data.dbf');
  7.move tablespace   移动表空间
  sql> alter table employee move tablespace users;
  8.deallocate of unused space  deallocate的闲置空间
  sql> alter table table_name deallocate unused [keep integer]
  9.truncate a table   截断表
  sql> truncate table table_name;
  10.drop a table  删除表
  sql> drop table table_name [cascade constraints];
  11.drop a column  删除列
  sql> alter table table_name drop column comments cascade constraints checkpoint 1000;
  alter table table_name drop columns continue;
  12.mark a column as unused
  sql> alter table table_name set unused column comments cascade constraints;
  alter table table_name drop unused columns checkpoint 1000;
  alter table orders drop columns continue checkpoint 1000
data_dictionary : dba_unused_col_tabs

 

  第四章:索引
  1.creating function-based indexes  建立基于功能的索引
sql> create index summit.item_quantity on summit.item(quantity-quantity_shipped);
  2.create a B-tree index    创造一个B树索引
  sql> create [unique] index index_name on table_name(column,.. asc/desc) tablespace
  sql> tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]
  sql> [logging | nologging] [nosort] storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0
  sql> maxextents 50);
  3.pctfree(index)=(maximum number of rows-initial number of rows)*100/maximum number of rows
  4.creating reverse key indexes   创造逆转关键指标
  sql> create unique index xay_id on xay(a) reverse pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k
  sql> next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;
  5.create bitmap index   创建位图索引
  sql> create bitmap index xay_id on xay(a) pctfree 30 storage( initial 200k next 200k
  sql> pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;
  6.change storage parameter of index   改变存储参数指标
  sql> alter index xay_id storage (next 400k maxextents 100);
  7.allocating index space    分配索引空间
  sql> alter index xay_id allocate extent(size 200k datafile 'c:/oracle/index.dbf');
8.alter index xay_id deallocate unused;    改变指数xay_id deallocate剩

 


  第五章:约束
  1.define constraints as immediate or deferred     界定制约即期或延期
  sql> alter session set constraint[s] = immediate/deferred/default;
  set constraint[s] constraint_name/all immediate/deferred;
  2. sql> drop table table_name cascade constraints
  sql> drop tablespace tablespace_name including contents cascade constraints
  3. define constraints while create a table    界定限制,同时创建一个表
  sql> create table xay(id number(7) constraint xay_id primary key deferrable
  sql> using index storage(initial 100k next 100k) tablespace indx);
  primary key/unique/references table(column)/check
  4.enable constraints    使制约
  sql> alter table xay enable novalidate constraint xay_id;
  5.enable constraints     使制约
sql> alter table xay enable validate constraint xay_id;

 


  第六章:LOAD数据
  1.loading data using direct_load insert
  sql> insert /*+append */ into emp nologging
  sql> select * from emp_old;
  2.parallel direct-load insert
  sql> alter session enable parallel dml;
  sql> insert /*+parallel(emp,2) */ into emp nologging
  sql> select * from emp_old;
  3.using sql*loader
  sql> sqlldr scott/tiger \
  sql> control = ulcase6.ctl \
sql> log = ulcase6.log direct=true

 


  第七章:数据整理
  1.using expoty
  $exp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=c:\emp.dmp log=exp.log compress=n direct=y
  2.using import
  $imp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=emp.dmp log=imp.log ignore=y
  3.transporting a tablespace
  sql>alter tablespace sales_ts read only;
  $exp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y tablespace=sales_ts
  triggers=n constraints=n
  $copy datafile
  $imp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y datafiles=(/disk1/sles01.dbf,/disk2
  /sles02.dbf)
  sql> alter tablespace sales_ts read write;
  4.checking transport set
  sql> DBMS_tts.transport_set_check(ts_list =>'sales_ts' ..,incl_constraints=>true);
  在表transport_set_violations 中查看
  sql> dbms_tts.isselfcontained 为true 是, 表示自包含
第八章: 密码安全与资源管理
  1.controlling account lock and password
  sql> alter user juncky identified by oracle account unlock;
  2.user_provided password function
  sql> function_name(userid in varchar2(30),password in varchar2(30),
  old_password in varchar2(30)) return boolean
  3.create a profile : password setting
  sql> create profile grace_5 limit failed_login_attempts 3
  sql> password_lock_time unlimited password_life_time 30
  sql>password_reuse_time 30 password_verify_function verify_function
  sql> password_grace_time 5;
  4.altering a profile
  sql> alter profile default failed_login_attempts 3
  sql> password_life_time 60 password_grace_time 10;
  5.drop a profile
  sql> drop profile grace_5 [cascade];
  6.create a profile : resource limit
  sql> create profile developer_prof limit sessions_per_user 2
  sql> cpu_per_session 10000 idle_time 60 connect_time 480;
  7. view => resource_cost : alter resource cost
  dba_Users,dba_profiles
  8. enable resource limits
  sql> alter system set resource_limit=true;
  第九章:用户管理
  1.create a user: database authentication
  sql> create user juncky identified by oracle default tablespace users
  sql> temporary tablespace temp quota 10m on data password expire
  sql> [account lock|unlock] [profile profilename|default];
  2.change user quota on tablespace
  sql> alter user juncky quota 0 on users;
  3.drop a user
  sql> drop user juncky [cascade];
  4. monitor user
  view: dba_users , dba_ts_quotas
  第十章:特权管理
  1.system privileges: view => system_privilege_map ,dba_sys_privs,session_privs
  2.grant system privilege
  sql> grant create session,create table to managers;
  sql> grant create session to scott with admin option;
  with admin option can grant or revoke privilege from any user or role;
  3.sysdba and sysoper privileges:
  sysoper: startup,shutdown,alter database open|mount,alter database backup controlfile,
  alter tablespace begin/end backup,recover database
  alter database archivelog,restricted session
  sysdba: sysoper privileges with admin option,create database,recover database until
  4.password file members: view:=> v$pwfile_users
  5.O7_dictionary_accessibility =true restriction access to view or tables in other schema
  6.revoke system privilege
  sql> revoke create table from karen;
  sql> revoke create session from scott;
  7.grant object privilege
  sql> grant execute on dbms_pipe to public;
  sql> grant update(first_name,salary) on employee to karen with grant option;
  8.display object privilege : view => dba_tab_privs, dba_col_privs
  9.revoke object privilege
  sql> revoke execute on dbms_pipe from scott [cascade constraints];
  10.audit record view :=> sys.aud$
  11. protecting the audit trail
  sql> audit delete on sys.aud$ by access;
  12.statement auditing
  sql> audit user;
  13.privilege auditing
  sql> audit select any table by summit by access;
  14.schema object auditing
  sql> audit lock on summit.employee by access whenever successful;
  15.view audit option : view=> all_def_audit_opts,dba_stmt_audit_opts,dba_priv_audit_opts,dba_obj_audit_opts
  16.view audit result: view=> dba_audit_trail,dba_audit_exists,dba_audit_object,dba_audit_session,dba_audit_statement
  第十一章: 规则管理器
  1.create roles
  sql> create role sales_clerk;
  sql> create role hr_clerk identified by bonus;
  sql> create role hr_manager identified externally;
  2.modify role
  sql> alter role sales_clerk identified by commission;
  sql> alter role hr_clerk identified externally;
  sql> alter role hr_manager not identified;
  3.assigning roles
  sql> grant sales_clerk to scott;
  sql> grant hr_clerk to hr_manager;
  sql> grant hr_manager to scott with admin option;
  4.establish default role
  sql> alter user scott default role hr_clerk,sales_clerk;
  sql> alter user scott default role all;
  sql> alter user scott default role all except hr_clerk;
  sql> alter user scott default role none;
  5.enable and disable roles
  sql> set role hr_clerk;
  sql> set role sales_clerk identified by commission;
  sql> set role all except sales_clerk;
  sql> set role none;
  6.remove role from user
  sql> revoke sales_clerk from scott;
  sql> revoke hr_manager from public;
  7.remove role
  sql> drop role hr_manager;
  8.display role information
  view: =>dba_roles,dba_role_privs,role_role_privs,dba_sys_privs,role_sys_privs,role_tab_privs,session_roles
  第十二章: 备份与恢复
  1. v$sga,v$instance,v$process,v$bgprocess,v$database,v$datafile,v$sgastat
  2. Rman need set dbwr_IO_slaves or backup_tape_IO_slaves and large_pool_size
  3. Monitoring Parallel Rollback
  > v$fast_start_servers , v$fast_start_transactions
  4.perform a closed database backup (noarchivelog)
  > shutdown immediate
  > cp files /backup/
  > startup
  5.restore to a different location
  > connect system/manager as sysdba
  > startup mount
  > alter database rename file '/disk1/../user.dbf' to '/disk2/../user.dbf';
  > alter database open;
  6.recover syntax
  --recover a mounted database
  >recover database;
  >recover datafile '/disk1/data/df2.dbf';
  >alter database recover database;
  --recover an opened database
  >recover tablespace user_data;
  >recover datafile 2;
  >alter database recover datafile 2;
  7.how to apply redo log files automatically
  >set autorecovery on
  >recover automatic datafile 4;
  8.complete recovery:
  --method 1(mounted databae)
  >copy c:\backup\user.dbf c:\oradata\user.dbf
  >startup mount
  >recover datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf;
  >alter database open;
  --method 2(opened database,initially opened,not system or rollback datafile)
  >copy c:\backup\user.dbf c:\oradata\user.dbf (alter tablespace offline)
  >recover datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' or
  >recover tablespace user_data;
  >alter database datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' online or
  >alter tablespace user_data online;
  --method 3(opened database,initially closed not system or rollback datafile)
  >startup mount
  >alter database datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' offline;
  >alter database open
  >copy c:\backup\user.dbf d:\oradata\user.dbf
  >alter database rename file 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' to 'd:\oradata\user.dbf'
  >recover datafile 'e:\oradata\user.dbf' or recover tablespace user_data;
  >alter tablespace user_data online;
  --method 4(loss of data file with no backup and have all archive log)
  >alter tablespace user_data offline immediate;
  >alter database create datafile 'd:\oradata\user.dbf' as 'c:\oradata\user.dbf''
  >recover tablespace user_data;
  >alter tablespace user_data online
  5.perform an open database backup
  > alter tablespace user_data begin backup;
  > copy files /backup/
  > alter database datafile '/c:/../data.dbf' end backup;
  > alter system switch logfile;
  6.backup a control file
  > alter database backup controlfile to 'control1.bkp';
  > alter database backup controlfile to trace;
  7.recovery (noarchivelog mode)
  > shutdown abort
  > cp files
  > startup
  8.recovery of file in backup mode
  >alter database datafile 2 end backup;
  9.clearing redo log file
  >alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1;
  >alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1 unrecoverable datafile;
  10.redo log recovery
  >alter database add logfile group 3 'c:\oradata\redo03.log' size 1000k;
  >alter database drop logfile group 1;
  >alter database open;
  or >cp c:\oradata\redo02.log' c:\oradata\redo01.log
  >alter database clear logfile 'c:\oradata\log01.log';

 

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